The current economic crisis reveals the fragility of the EU’s political building. While the EU motto ‘Europe united in diversity’ is clear why each state and citizen should be respected in their differences, it is less easy to see what can keep them all together. This lecture will explore possible sources of political unity—or ‘European identity’—following four years of research. Firstly, it will offer an outline of the problem of European political identity, and of other important concepts such as political form, political culture, and political community. The presentation will then contrast the foundational ideals with the current situation of the EU. It will consider the relation between political culture, political participation and solidarity for European citizens. The paper will suggest that human rights might provide a common language of political culture, and a ground for European political identity. Finally, it will briefly mention the methodology of ‘analogical hermeneutics’ to approach the topic.